South Somerset Local Plan Review 2016-2036 Preferred Options Consultation (Regulation 18)

6 Yeovil

Spatial Portrait

6.1 Yeovil is by far the largest settlement in South Somerset and is the focus for employment, retail, services and housing in the District. It is located on the south eastern boundary of Somerset, adjacent to the Dorset border and is surrounded by a rural area of smaller market towns and villages.Yeovil Image

6.2 Yeovil is closely linked to the A303 trunk road, which runs east-west through the District. The A30 and A37 run through the town. There are two mainline railway stations, Yeovil Pen Mill on the Weymouth-Bristol line and Yeovil Junction on the Exeter-London Waterloo line. Neither station is ideally located, Pen Mill is on the eastern edge of the settlement, Yeovil Junction is located two miles to the south. However, there is a regular bus service from the stations to the town centre and Pen Mill has good pedestrian and cycle links to the town centre via an off road path.

6.3 Rapid housing development over the last 50 years has now taken Yeovil's population to around 47,780 people[1] . This residential growth has primarily spread north and west of the town centre, absorbing the small hamlets of Preston Plucknett and Alvington, and now extending to the edge of Lufton hamlet to the west and Brimsmore to the north. Development to the southeast has been limited due to a combination of the River Yeo’s flood plain, steep hills, and historic homes and estates.

6.4 Yeovil plays a significant economic role in the County and is the prime economic driver for South Somerset. The town is the heart of aerospace research, design and manufacture in Somerset with a long history of aircraft manufacture dating back over 100 years. For context, it has 21 times the concentration of employment in aerospace than the national average and consequently there are a high proportion of manufacturing jobs in the town. There are also many jobs in health and social work and retail, but the town is under-represented in private sector services such as banking and finance. It has high levels of self-containment and also high levels of in-commuting.

6.5 Yeovil has a range of food and non-food shops with numerous national multiple operators. Some of the key services and cultural activities in the town include Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil College, the Octagon Theatre, Yeovil Town Football Club, and the refurbished Westland Leisure Complex.

6.6 Some of the core town centre functions of Yeovil are currently located elsewhere in the town. For example many offices including the Yeovil Innovation Centre and South Somerset District Council’s main office are now located outside of the town centre.

6.7 The car currently dominates travel with over 40%[2] of people travelling to work by car or van. So whilst lots of people who live in Yeovil also work in Yeovil, they do not walk, cycle, or use public transport to commute. Although there are some dedicated cycle routes around parts of Yeovil, much of this network is discontinuous meaning that it is difficult to cycle to key destinations across the town, particularly from northern parts of Yeovil. Therefore, key traffic routes across the town suffer from congestion at peak times. Road traffic is the prime cause of poor air quality in parts of Yeovil, which has led to the whole town being designated as an Air Quality Management Area.

6.8 Yeovil is located in an attractive rural setting, within a sensitive landscape defined by escarpments to both the north and south. There is a rich historic environment in close proximity to the town, including registered Historic Parks and Gardens, village Conservation Areas and Scheduled Ancient Monuments. Much of the town is surrounded by Best and Most Versatile (BMV) agricultural land. There are several local wildlife sites and European protected species. The River Yeo flood plain runs along the eastern edge of the town. The Nine Springs Country Park just to the south of the town centre is a key asset and like much of the historic and natural environment provides tourism opportunities.

1. Office for National Statistics: 2016 Mid-Year LSOA Estimates [back]
2. Census, 2011 [back]

Local Aspirations - the 'Yeovil Town Centre Refresh’

6.9 The Town Centre Development Strategy for Yeovil has been undertaken by consultants on behalf of South Somerset District Council and the refresh of Yeovil Town Centre is one of the Council’s Priority Projects for 2019 to 2020. More detail on this can be found in Section 11 – Town Centre Regeneration and Retail.

What Will The Local Plan Deliver?


6.10 The spatial strategy proposes about 5,091 new homes at Yeovil, This level of housing provision helps to maintain a balance with the town's potential job growth and will serve to maintain Yeovil as the focus for growth in the South Somerset economy. Additional housing will also help to support a vibrant retail, leisure and service base for the town and wider area.

6.11 The development capacity in Yeovil within the Local Plan Review period as at 31st March 2018 has been identified as:

  • Completions: 564 dwellings
  • Commitments: 1640 dwellings
  • Yeovil Sustainable Urban Extensions (SUEs):1565 dwellings
  • Yeovil Town Centre: 400 dwellings (325 through Policy TC1 plus around 75 through Policy TC2)
  • Other allocations: 922 dwellings

Yeovil Sustainable Urban Extensions

6.12 Sustainable Urban Extensions (SUEs) at Yeovil including 1,565 dwellings and 5 ha of employment land are still required to deliver the proposed level of growth for the town. This would equate to around 3,400 people living in the urban extensions when completed. The scale of growth being proposed is similar at each SUE, with approximately 800 dwellings in the south area and 765 dwellings in the north east. Sufficient land for economic development is provided to allow for one job per household, and a range of community facilities are included to ensure a mix of uses and more sustainable communities. These capacity issues will be resolved in due course, with contributions being sought through Section 106 obligations and possibly CIL[3] .

6.13 At the time of writing, planning applications for each of the SUEs remain to be determined [4] . In order for the outline applications and any subsequent reserved matters applications to be approved, they will need to have complied with the highest sustainability objectives and ‘Garden City’ design principles as previously established by Policy YV2 of the 2006-2028 Local Plan; and as set out in Policy YV1 of this Local Plan Review [5] .

6.14 In particular the following standards are to be pursued for these strategic locations for Yeovil:

  • 40% greenspace – an aspiration in keeping with the Yeovil Vision and the high quality urban edge landscape of Yeovil;
  • A minimum of 30% affordable housing to achieve the garden town aspirations of the Council for the Urban Extensions – the Council’s target is 35%;
  • More options for non-car travel (30% of trips should be non-car) – the high usage levels of traffic on Yeovil’s roads throughout the network point to retention of this standard to enable maximum development and development benefits at minimum adverse traffic impact;
  • 1 job per household provided on site – this enables a new sustainable community less controlled by the need to use the car;
  • Homes accessible to public transport – the need to promote viable public transport in Yeovil is clear.

6.15 The Masterplanning of the planning application proposals has included the involvement and scrutiny of the local Parish Councils and communities.

6.16 The East Coker Neighbourhood Plan has now been made, having been agreed by an independent Examiner and the subject of a favourable referendum [6] . The neighbourhood area includes the whole of the parish of East Coker which extends into the southern edge of Yeovil, where the Yeovil South Area SUE is located.

6.17 The Neighbourhood Plan provides for at least 54 additional dwellings within the Parish over the period 2011-2028 this figure excludes to Yeovil South Area SUE. Policy SS2 of this Local Plan Review sets a requirement for 38 new dwellings in the Neighbourhood Area excluding the South Area Sustainable Urban Extension and the site allocated under Policy YV3 of the Local Plan Review.



I. The Yeovil Sustainable Urban Extensions are located in two areas to the south and north-east of the town and should provide the following:

a) The south area:

  • Approximately 800 dwellings; including 29% affordable housing;
  • Approximately 2.58 hectares of land for economic development;
  • One Primary school;
  • A health centre; and
  • A neighbourhood centre.

b) The north east area:

  • Approximately 2.58 hectares of land for economic development;
  • Approximately 765 dwellings; including 29% affordable housing;
  • One Primary school;
  • A health centre;
  • A neighbourhood centre; and
  • Landscape mitigation to address:
    • Potential massing effects across the site’s northward face; and
    • Potential visual dominance at the site’s edge and skyline.

ii. The Yeovil Sustainable Urban Extensions will be developed to the highest sustainability objectives and Garden City principles.

iii. Development within the Yeovil Sustainable Urban Extensions will be permitted where features supporting bat movement are not severed and access between feeding areas and roosts is maintained unless it can be proven that there would be no significant effect by the proposal on such features.

3. The current CIL Regulation 123 List, 2016 does not include education provision and this is currently addressed through S.106 obligations. [back]
4. Primrose Lane, Upper Mudford – 14/02554/OUT; and Keyford – 15/01000/OUT [back]
5. [back]
6. The Neighbourhood Planning (General) Regulations 2012 as amended [back]

Yeovil Summerhouse Village

6.18 Adopted Local Plan Policy YV3 identifies land in the Yeovil town centre for a mixed use scheme including housing, employment, retail and leisure uses. This proposal has now been superseded by the Yeovil Refresh proposals which are discussed in Section 11 of this Local Plan Review and consequently adopted Local Plan Policy YV3 has been deleted.

North West of Brimsmore key Site

6.19 The site is adjacent to Brimsmore Key Site, to the north west of the main built-up area of the town. Whilst the settlement of Thorne Coffin lies to the east, the scheme would sit in a natural low lying valley between two ridgelines. Significant landscaping would be required on the western and northern edges of the site. To the east, the scheme would link with the existing Brimsmore Key Site development.



The site north-west of Brimsmore Key Site is allocated for residential development to provide the following:

  • About 200 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Children’s formal and informal play space;
  • Public open space;
  • Significant landscaping buffer on the western and northern edges.

South of Keyford

6.20 This site will form a southern extension to the south Sustainable Urban Extension. Listed buildings at Key Farm are located to the south east of the site. The site of a Roman Villa – a Scheduled Ancient Monument, is also located nearby to the north-west corner. There are Rights of Way across the site which will need to be retained or re-routed following a successful application for a Diversion Order. In order to protect the setting of the site of the Roman Villa to the east; and to provide the opportunity to enhance biodiversity and provide additional public amenity land, the field to the west of Pavyotts Lane should remain undeveloped and planted with strong landscaping.



The site south of Keyford is allocated for residential development to provide the following:

  • About 265 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Children’s formal and informal play space;
  • Public open space;
  • Retention of existing Rights of Way;
  • A landscaping buffer in the western part of the site (west of Pavyotts Lane)


Land at Brimsmore Gardens

6.21 This site on the northern edge of Yeovil, adjacent to Brimsmore Gardens, extends to nearly 11ha. The topography in the NE corner slopes more steeply down to ponds and wooded area, so this part of the site should be provided as public open space, an area of biodiversity and sustainable drainage. Access should be off Tintinhull Road and not via the A37.



The site at Brimsmore Gardens is allocated for residential development to provide the following:

  • About 200 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Children’s formal and informal play space;
  • Public open space;
  • Retention of existing Rights of Way

Mudford Road

6.22 This site is located on the north eastern side of Yeovil and proposes frontage development extending from the existing residential properties on the north side of Mudford Road to the small group of houses on the A359 as you exit Yeovil in the direction of Mudford.

6.23 Frontage development only is proposed to reflect the character of the existing properties along Mudford Road.



The site at Mudford Road is allocated for residential development to provide the following:

  • About 25 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Children’s formal and informal play space;
  • Public open space.


Yeovil Former Bus Depot, Reckleford

6.24 This is a brownfield site just to the north of the designated Yeovil Town Centre. It is capable of accommodating a high density residential scheme in a highly sustainable location.



The former Bus Depot is allocated for residential development, to provide the following:

  • About 100 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Public open space. 

Junction of St Michaels Road and Victoria Road

6.25 This brownfield site is located in a predominantly residential area and its residential re-use should provide for reduced noise, hours of operation, traffic load and disruption. The site has the potential to link directly with an adjacent play area.



The site north of the junction between St Michael’s Road and Victoria Road is allocated for residential development, to provide the following:

  • About 12 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Public open space.

Eastville Road

6.26 This is another brownfield site in a predominantly residential part of the built-up area of Yeovil; and a relatively high density scheme may be acceptable, subject to the impact on adjoining properties.



The site at Eastfield Road is allocated for residential development, to provide the following:

  • About 20 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Public open space.

Land west of Bunford Hollow

6.27 Located to the south of the Bundford Park employment site, this land is the subject of an outline planning application for up to 100 dwellings [7] . Due to the proximity of the site to the Grade 1 listed Brympton House and the Grade II* Registered Park and Garden it will be vital that any proposal meets the requirements of paragraph 189 of the NPPF and any determination is made in accordance with the principles and policies within the NPPF.



The site West of Bunford Hollow is allocated for residential development to provide the following:

  • About 100 dwellings, including 29% affordable housing;
  • Public open space.
7. Planning application number 17/03320/OUT [back]


6.28 The Local Plan Review supports Yeovil’s role as the prime economic driver in South Somerset as well as parts of surrounding districts. Policy SS3 (Delivering New Employment Growth) sets a target of 24ha of employment land for Yeovil.

Yeovil Employment

6.29 Given that Yeovil is the largest urban area in the District, it is expected that there will be a degree of replacement, churn and loss as older buildings and premises become obsolete and new land/buildings are developed. To some extent, this represents the natural cycle of stock upgrades and replacement seen within all urban areas. The majority of losses have been to residential use.

6.30 Three employment allocations were carried forward from the old Local Plan (1991-2006) into the adopted Plan. These are ME/YEOV/4 Land south of Yeovil Airfield, ME/WECO/1 Land off Bunford Lane, and the employment element of the Lufton Key Site, KS/BRYM/1, known as Lufton 2000. They all have planning permissions in place for employment development.

6.31 Figure 6.1 summarises the delivery of land for economic development in Yeovil as at 31 March 2018. This is all land for economic development, as opposed to just B Uses.

Figure 6.1: Yeovil Economic Development as at 31 March 2018


Land (Hectares) (Net)

Floorspace (m2) (Net)




Under Construction



Not Yet Started






Source: SSDC Authority Monitoring Report 2018

6.32 There does not appear to be any particular appetite for large scale office building in Yeovil, although the Motivo building appears successful and the Yeovil Innovation Centre has also recently been extended. Planning permission has also been granted for the iAreo aerospace serviced accommodation on Bunford Lane, adjacent to the airfield, with construction expected to start soon.


6.33 Yeovil is the largest town centre in South Somerset. Food shopping (known as convenience goods) is spread throughout the town both within what is known as the defined Town Centre (identified on the Local Plan Proposals Map) and outside, in other parts of the town. A total of £174.63 million in convenience goods expenditure was attracted to Yeovil in 2017, 48% of the total convenience goods spending attracted to the District. Of this spending, 31% was in the Town Centre and 69% in the rest of Yeovil [8] . This is not surprising as the majority of supermarkets are located outside of the Town Centre and there continues to be pressure for this as the development industry believes there are no suitable, available and viable town centre sites to accommodate further growth in food shopping.Yeovil Retail

6.34 Comparison goods refer to durable goods such as clothing or footwear, in other words, non-food. The comparison goods expenditure attracted to Yeovil in 2017 totalled £392.35m, equivalent to 86% of the total comparison goods spending in the District as a whole. Food and beverage expenditure attracted to Yeovil is £90.86 million; 57% of the total attracted to the District [9] .

6.35 By way of comparison with other town and city centres, Yeovil is ranked 160th by Venuescore (2016) [10] , Taunton 90th, Bristol 13th, Bath 19th, and Exeter 22nd.

6.36 The household shopper survey carried out as part of the Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study indicates that Yeovil is the main destination for 35% of South Somerset shoppers for food shopping and 77% for non-food. When asked what would make respondents shop in Yeovil more often 51.5% stated ‘nothing’. A better choice of shops in general is the improvement most would like to see. The following summarises the suggested improvements:

Figure 6.2

6.37 Looking to the future, the projected retail floorspace capacity at Yeovil is as follows:

Figure 6.3: Projected Retail Floorspace Capacity in Yeovil (sq. m gross)


By 2024

By 2029

By 2034










Food and Beverage




Source: South Somerset Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study, 2017

6.38 The vacant units in Yeovil town centre could accommodate some of this growth depending on the size and nature of available units and market demand.

6.39 The Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study does not recommend any change to the existing retail hierarchy. Yeovil is seen as having the best prospects for attracting investment from developers and multiple operators and should be the location for large-scale development serving a wider area. Infrastructure

6.40 The Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) Update 2015/16[11] identifies a number of infrastructure requirements for Yeovil, these are summarised below. This document also analyses issues which have emerged through a consultation with infrastructure providers, since the update was published.

Figure 6.4: Infrastructure Requirements for Yeovil

Infrastructure Type


Yeovil Refresh

As part of the Yeovil Refresh initiative, there is a requirement for an overarching access strategy to provide the basis for transport in Infrastructure investments.

A Local Walking and Cycling Infrastructure Plan is to be produced to provide the basis for future investment in cycling and walking infrastructure.

A car parking action plan is to be produced and improved fixed plate directional signage is to be installed.

Improved lighting is to be installed in West Hendford car park and a Public Realm Design Guide is to be produced.


The Yeovil Eastern Corridor project [12]  proposed several improvements through the town centre and eastwards, and a significant amount of the work has now been completed using funding from developers and public finance (Priority 1).

The Yeovil Western Corridor aims to increase the capacity of key junctions to the west of the town, as well as enhancing walking and cycling links (Priority 1). This is an £11 million scheme, fully funded through contributions from local development and the Heart of the South West Local Transport Board. It is expected to be complete in the Spring of 2019.

A number of other highway improvement works are planned as part of the delivery of the Key Sites and the two SUEs. Under the terms of the Section 106 Agreement signed for the Lyde Road Key Site, the following highway works are proposed and will be funded by developers:

·         Lyde Road / Sherborne Road – conversion of existing junction to a traffic light signal controlled junction (Priority 1 - completed);

·         Upgrade existing Lyde Road / Mudford Road junction to a traffic light signal controlled junction (Priority 1); and

·         Creation of a roundabout at the Combe Street Lane / Mudford Road junction (Priority 1).

Significant road improvement schemes will be required in order to provide adequate access for the two SUEs. For the North-East SUE, a new roundabout is needed on Primrose Lane to allow access in to the west of the site (Priority 1). For the Southern SUE, a new fifth arm for the Keyford roundabout is required, and improvements to Little Tarratt Lane / A37 junction are also required (Priority 1).

There remain concerns over specific congestion hots-spots and poor traffic-flow along key routes (Priority 1), these include:

·         A30 (Reckleford) and its relationship with access roads into and out of the town centre, such as Wyndham Street and Market Street; and

·         Access to key regeneration sites in the town centre, such as: the Cattle Market, Stars Lane/Box Factory, Glovers Walk, and the Quedam Extension.


There is currently no southern rail link between Yeovil Junction and the southbound line (i.e. the so-called ‘south chord’ towards Dorchester). This limits both the potential to enhance services, and network resilience to extreme weather events. Options are being considered to address this issue but any solution would only be likely over the long term.

Yeovil Junction and Yeovil Pen Mill stations require modest infrastructure enhancements to enable a better service to cater for growing communities.


The network suffers from a lack of connectivity in places. Sustainable travel schemes are being considered in order to promote connectivity with the SUEs. Improvements are also planned as part of the Yeovil Refresh.

Flood Risk and Drainage

The majority of flood risk and drainage problems relate to surface water and sewer flooding, with around 1,100 residential properties at risk of surface water flooding in the town. There are no Environment Agency (EA) maintained raised defences in Yeovil itself, but EA defences are in place nearby upstream at Barwick and Stoford. A Surface Water Management Plan for Yeovil to inform future development and drainage works is programmed to be prepared in 2019-20.


In the short term, the Brimsmore key site needs to upgrade existing sewers, provide a new off-site mains sewer, and new booster station. Lufton key site needs to provide a new off-site sewer.

The development of Bunford Park will provide an upgrade to the electricity grid and improvements to the strategic water main network. The north SUE will provide off-site foul sewerage enhancements, water supply and electricity grid improvements.

In the medium term, the South Yeovil SUE should provide a new off-site sewer and new off-site mains (Priority 1). In addition, Pen Mill Sewage Treatment Works requires a detailed Strategic Enhancement Plan in order to inform future investment needs, with a treatment works scheme required in 2020-25 subject to growth and water quality objectives.

The upgrading of the water supply grid will ensure sufficient capacity in Yeovil (Priority 1). This will be funded directly by Wessex Water and delivered in the short term (2018 – 2020).

Off-site electrical and gas reinforcement works will be required for the South SUE, and these have been factored in by the developer in their planning application (Priority 1).

New off-site sewers will also be required for the South SUE.

It is understood from Wessex Water that its developments in Yeovil are part of a wider initiative to rationalise the number of facilities. SCC are currently seeking clarification on which Sewerage Treatment Works will continue to operate.


In order to accommodate Local Plan growth, two new primary schools are required in the short term: one associated with the Lufton Key Site, and another associated with the North East SUE / Wyndham Park site (Priority 1). Two further new primary schools are required in the medium term: one at Brimsmore Key Site (Priority 1), and one associated with the South SUE (Priority 2).

Health Care

The Local Plan creates the opportunity for a new health centre in each of the two SUEs, estimated to be delivered in the medium to long term (Priority 2), and reflected in the outline planning applications for the SUEs.

Opportunities to provide integrated health care are being considered including Yeovil District Hospital’s ‘Symphony’ project.

NHS England and Somerset CCG are producing a high level Local Estates Strategy. This will fully assess existing health care capacity across South Somerset and will be used to inform any future needs. Initial indications suggest that provision in Yeovil will be highlighted as a priority.

It is understood that the current Yeovil Health Centre has outgrown the space available. Symphony Healthcare Services (SHS) will seek a suitable area of land to be allocated for healthcare purposes. The site should be suitably located and sized to accommodate a primary healthcare building with the required external space for landscaping, vehicle parking etc.

There are six general practice surgeries in Yeovil, dispersed across the town. Within the sustainable urban extensions at Brimsmore and Wyndham Park, provision has been made for the inclusion of medical services to meet the needs of the residents within each SUE. However, there are a number of factors that would affect the delivery of the new primary healthcare facilities:

·         Financial pressures

·         Changes to the NHS model of care

·         Somerset CCG STP

·         Shortage of suitable General Practitioners

None of the allocations have a critical mass large enough to support a primary care centre, so financial contributions or CIL should therefore be sought.

It is understood that planned works at Yeovil District Hospital include ward refurbishment, a New Ambulatory Breast Care Unit, Daycase Unit, Emergency department expansion, and a Primary Care Development.


New housing generates a need for additional open space and outdoor play space, sports, community and cultural facilities; although the timing of this has not been identified as fundamental to the delivery of planned development (Priority 2 and Priority 3).

Some infrastructure has been identified as part of the overall ‘offer’ within strategic development sites, for example, a new community hall at Wyndham Park, a bike park at Birchfield Park (both Priority 2) and one new sports ground in the town (Priority 3).

In addition, there is an aspiration for 40% green space at the SUEs in order to create a high quality urban edge landscape. A specialist strategic sports and recreation facility (Sports Zone) is sought in Yeovil to meet the needs of the whole District, as set out in Local Plan Policy HW2 (Priority 3).

A variety of town centre public realm enhancements (identified in the Yeovil Urban Development Framework) are desirable (Priority 3). These are now part of the Yeovil refresh town centre regeneration proposals (see Section 11).

The future of Yeovil police station remains uncertain.

The long-term future of the Yeovil fire station at Reckleford is subject to discussion given financial pressures experienced by the organisation (Priority 3).

The South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust has identified that a new ambulance station is required to replace the current one, although this has seen significant delays from the original target completion date of 2012 (Priority 3).

There is a project to build a new 160 seater chapel at Yeovil Crematorium, to be operational by Sept 2019, along with other improvements at the facility. In conjunction with this, a new car park at the site for a further 60 no. spaces has now been completed.

8. Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study; Lichfields, 2017 [back]
9. South Somerset Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study, Lichfields 2017 (Appendix 5) [back]
10. VENUESCORE™ is an annual survey compiled by Javelin Group, which ranks the UK’s top 3,500+ retail venues (including town centres, stand-alone malls, retail warehouse parks and factory outlet centres). [back]
11. South Somerset Infrastructure Delivery Plan Update 2015/16, Part One – Spatial Summary, January 2016: [back]
12. Somerset County Council project for road improvements [back]

Yeovil Airfield Flight Safety Zone

6.41 The aerospace company Leonardo is one of the main employers in Yeovil and is of key strategic importance to the economy of the town. In order to protect it from causing disturbance to sensitive uses such as new residential properties, a Flight Safety Zone (see Appendix Two) will be enforced and Noise Contours (see Appendix Four) used to guide sensitive new development away from the areas where such nuisance could potentially occur.



Development in the Yeovil Airfield Flight Safety Zone will be strictly controlled and limited to that which can be justified as causing no hazard to the operational needs of Leonardo’s Aerodrome